【米クリスチャニティ・トゥデイ】とらえどころのない存在① 福音派の危機の核心(前編)



[toggle]With this article, I begin a new column in which I will share reflections on American Christianity, but especially evangelical Christianity. I’ve been embedded in the movement for over five decades, so I should have something to say by now. And what I have to say about the movement is more or less what I have to say to myself, as I see in myself the same shortcomings and potential that I see in the movement at large. [/toggle]


このシリーズのタイトルを「とらえどころのない存在」にしたが、これはサムエル・テリエン著『とらえどころのない存在──聖書神学の核心』(The Elusive Presence: The Heart of Biblical Theology)から借りたものだ。私がこの本を読んだのは1978年の発売後すぐだったので、今ではタイトル以外あまり記憶に残っていないが、注意深い読者の方は、このシリーズが進むにつれ、なぜこのタイトルがつけられたかが分かるだろう。

[toggle]The title of the column, “The Elusive Presence,” is deliberately borrowed from The Elusive Presence: The Heart of Biblical Theology by Samuel Terrien, originally published in 1978 (it’s now published by Wipf & Stock with the subtitle Toward a New Biblical Theology). I read the book soon after it was published, but today I don’t consciously remember much from it except the title (though I suspect it has formed me in ways I remain unaware of). As this series goes on, the careful reader will understand why this is an apt title for the column. If you want to be alerted to these weekly offerings, sign of up for The Galli Report. [/toggle]


[toggle]It’s hard to know when the current “crisis of evangelicalism” started, because one characteristic feature of the movement is its relentless self-criticism. Evangelicalism is a reform movement, and one object of evangelicals is to reform is themselves. [/toggle]


[toggle]I do remember when I became aware of a personal crisis that gave me insight into the challenge we all face. I cannot remember the time and place, but I do remember my reaction. [/toggle]


[toggle]It may have been as the result of hearing a sermon, or perhaps reading a book. But I distinctly remember thinking that my Christian life was sorely lacking in the love of God. I didn’t have any affection for or yearning to know and love God. I wasn’t angry with him. I didn’t doubt his existence. I wasn’t wrestling with the problem of evil. I was being a faithful Christian as best I knew how. But it occurred to me that I didn’t feel any love for God. [/toggle]


[toggle]I also realized that even though I prayed and read Scripture regularly, not much in my life would be different if I didn’t pray and read my Bible. That is, I was living as a practical atheist, meaning my personal relationship with God did not really affect much inside me. I was at the time managing editor of Christianity Today, so naturally I edited and wrote a lot of things that were Christian to the core. But I realized that if I never prayed again, that I could still be a very good editor at a Christian publication, and a very good church member at my local parish. I knew how to get along with others, to manage staff, to work with my superiors, to work with fellow church members, and to write on Christian spirituality. But prayer wasn’t necessary to do all that. These other matters were all learned skills that had more or less become good habits. My personal relationship with God really didn’t make any difference. [/toggle]


[toggle]My next thought was, “Well, if I call myself a Christian, I should have greater love and desire to know God more deeply. Perhaps I should pray for that.” And that’s when something occurred to me with great force: I wasn’t sure I wanted that. I recognize that was an odd admission for a person who claimed to be a good Christian. But there it was. I didn’t think I really wanted to love God more. The reasons for that are complex and will be touched on later, but the bottom line was: I really didn’t want to love God. [/toggle]


[toggle]I’d immersed myself in enough Scripture and Christian theology to know that there was no greater desire than to yearn for God, no greater joy or happiness than to know God more and more intimately. And yet I had to admit that as I looked at my heart and my will, I had little to no interest in that. [/toggle]


[toggle]I also realized at that moment that there was no hiding all this from God, and that God had known the state of my heart and will for some time, and that he was patiently and mercifully waiting for me to see it for myself. That’s when I also realized that the most honest prayer was simply this: “Lord, help me to want to love you.” [/toggle]


[toggle]There is a danger to universalizing one’s personal experience, assuming it applies to others, even an entire body of believers. But I actually believe it worked the other way. For some decades now, as evidenced in my writing, I’ve believed that American Christianity has been less and less interested in God as such, and more and more at doing good things for God. We’ve learned how to be effective for him, to the point that we don’t really need him any longer. It was that continuing concern that finally took hold of me, making me realize that this was not their crisis but a crises we all share. [/toggle]

福音派が今どういう状態で、どこへ向かうべきか、福音派のクリスチャンが声を上げて考え始めた瞬間を選ぶとしたら、それはデイブ・トムリンソン著『ポスト福音派』(The Post-Evangelical)が出版された1995年だと私は指摘したい。この書籍が出されたきっかけは、出版の2年前に英国で行われたグリーンベルト・フェスティバルで友人が言った「私たちポスト福音派」という言葉だったという。その時はそれが何を意味するかすら分からなかったが、トムリンソンはこの言葉の意味について考察することに決めた。この言葉に彼も友人も共感したからだ。彼によればこの著書は、「福音派の神学、霊性、教会文化、これらの制限と戦う(多くの)人に向けられた牧会的エッセイ」だそうだ。

[toggle]If I were to pick a moment when evangelical Christians began wondering out loud about the state of the movement and where it should be headed, I’d point to the 1995 publication of Dave Tomlinson’s The Post-Evangelical. He described the book’s genesis two years earlier when at the Greenbelt Festival in Britain a friend made a passing reference to “we post-evangelicals,” although he wasn’t sure what that even meant. Tomlinson decided to figure out what it meant, since the term resonated with him and his friends. The book, in his words, was a “pastoral essay directed at those (and there are many) … who struggle with restrictions in evangelical theology, spirituality, and church culture.” [/toggle]

この本は英国で大きな反響を呼び、米国でも同様に波紋が広がっていった。この本などの影響もあって、福音派の神学をポストモダンな感覚に適応させるエマージェント・チャーチ(新しい教会)ムーブメントが起こった。中でもよく知られているのが、ブライアン・マクラレンの『新種のクリスチャン』(New Kind of Christian)3部作で、最初の出版が2001年、最終作が『新種のキリスト教』(A New Kind of Christianity、2010年)だ。


[toggle]The book made a big splash in Britain, and the like-minded in America began to take notice. From this and other influences arose the Emergent Church movement, which sought, among other things, to adapt evangelical theology to postmodern sensibilities. Perhaps the most well-known attempt was Brian McLaren’s New Kind of Christian trilogy, first published in 2001 and concluded with A New Kind of Christianity in 2010. By the publication of the latter book, McLaren was not merely questioning evangelicalism but also many doctrines of orthodox Christianity. For him and many other emergent leaders, the crisis of evangelicalism was also the crisis of traditional Christianity. Both, as McLaren argued, were mired in the spirit of “modernity,” of theological rigidity, literal reading of Scripture, cold to mystery, more interested in proclaiming answers than in “living the questions.” [/toggle]


「クリスチャニティー・トゥデイ」(Christianity Today)は、1956年に伝道者ビリー・グラハムと編集長カール・ヘンリーにより創刊された、クリスチャンのための定期刊行物。96年、ウェブサイトが開設されて記事掲載が始められた。雑誌は今、500万以上のクリスチャン指導者に毎月届けられ、オンラインの購読者は1000万に上る。